Devising and maintaining a workable scheme to accomplish the business need that the project was undertaken to address...PMI
1. Define Scope
The scope of a project is defined by the major deliverables outlined in the Scope Statement, which are in turn reduced to more manageable parts utilizing a work breakdown structure (WBS). A WBS is usually presented in chart form and organizes the deliverables into detailed project elements that encompass all aspects of the project scope. A Scope Statement is a written agreement between the project team and the person(s) that commissioned the project. It provides the foundation of understanding between all stakeholders as to why a project was undertaken, what product or service will be delivered, and what measurable objectives denote the successful completion of the project. The Scope Statement provides the basis for future project decisions and must accurately reflect any revisions that are made to the scope of the project. This important component, managing scope and integrating any scope changes, is outlined in the Scope Management Plan document.
| Scope Statement || WBS || Scope Management Plan |
2. Develop Schedule
The project schedule is developed through a series of steps beginning with identifying the specific activities required to produce the deliverables identified in the WBS. Activities must be described accurately and be clearly communicated to those doing the work to ensure that project objectives are met. Once the activity list is created, then a project network diagram is produced linking activities in a logical sequence based on the dependencies that exist. At this point, estimates are made on the expected time required to complete each activity. Once these steps are completed, all of this information is integrated into developing the project schedule, usually taking the form of a Gantt chart or various other charts or diagrams. A plan to manage any changes that arise in the project schedule is developed and outlined in the schedule management plan
3. Develop Budget Estimates
The process of developing budget estimates begins by identifying the resources required to complete all activities described in the WBS. Once the resources are identified, an estimate is made of what each item or element will cost. This estimating process is a critical phase in the planning process and a variety of tools, techniques, and expertise are employed to ensure as much accuracy as possible in the budget projections. These cost estimates are then grouped and totaled based on when they occur on the time line of the project schedule to produce a cost baseline. This baseline is used to monitor cost performance on the project. Due to the nature of the estimating process, cost variances are a reality that must be managed. This is addressed by developing a cost management plan.
4. Other Management Plans
Quality management planning involves determining what quality standards are relevant to the project and how these standards will be met. Other key aspects of the quality management plan are quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement.
A communication management plan describes how information will be collected, distributed, assessed, updated, refined, and stored. The purpose of the plan is to ensure that the relevant information and communication needs of all stakeholders are achieved.
Organizational planning includes identifying, documenting, and assigning roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships to both individuals and groups within the project team. The results of this process are the determination of who does what, who decides what, and who reports to whom. This latter aspect is usually represented in the form of an organization chart. Another key element in organizational planning is the development of a staffing management plan. This document outlines the how and when of bringing human resources onto and off of the project.
Risk management planning entails identifying which risks are likely to impact the project and then evaluating the influence that each risk could possibly have on the project's outcome. This information is included in the risk management plan as well as who is responsible for the different risk areas and how these risks will be managed. Possible responses to these identified risks are developed by way of a range of contingency plans and this information is usually included within the risk management plan document.
Procurement management is comprised of the assorted processes necessary in acquiring goods and services from a source outside the organization that initiates a project. The first of these processes is determining what, if any, project needs would be best met by using an outside source. If, through various assessment techniques, the decision is made to procure goods or services, the procurement management plan details the steps of how this activity will be managed. A key document necessary for this process to proceed is the statement of work (SOW), which describes the item to be procured in enough detail for potential vendors to determine if they are capable of providing the desired good or service. In the solicitation process, Request for Proposal (RFP) and Invitation for Bid (IFB) are examples of documents that are commonly utilized to solicit proposals from potential sellers.
5. Develop Project Plan
The information and decisions developed through the numerous planning processes is brought together to produce the project plan. This document integrates these outputs in a coherent, consistent manner that is utilized in guiding project execution and project control. The project plan is subject to change as more information becomes available and the project develops.